Documento creado: 1de julio de 2008
Air & Space Power Journal - Español  Segundo  Trimestre 2008

Islamic Terrorist Activities in Latin America: Why the Region and the US

 Should be Concerned

Renee Novakoff , Senior Analyst, US Southern Command1

Islamic Terrorist Activities in Latin America

While the world is focused on the war in the Middle East and countering Islamic terrorist group activities there and in South Asia and to a lesser extent the US and Europe, there is only periodic focus on other regions vulnerable to Islamic terrorist activity; Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. This article focuses on the first two areas and describes a consistent pattern of Islamic extremist activity over the past twenty years that ranges from revenue generation and logistic support to more sinister activities. This paper makes the case for why US, Latin American, and Caribbean leaders need to be diligent in halting the ongoing terrorist-related activity in those regions.

There are many myths about Islamic terrorist activities in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most literature on the subject paints a dire threat, stating that attacks are imminent either in the region or from the region. Just as much literature downplays the threat, stating that the over 3 million Muslims or about 1% of the population in the region are peaceful and just trying to make a living. As is usually the case, the truth is somewhere in the middle. In the Triborder Area (TBA) of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay alone, counter-terrorism organizations have uncovered over 50 people suspected of sympathizing with extremism and of financing Islamic terrorism over the past 10 years, according to local media.2

Triborder Area (TBA)
 Triborder map (TBA) in a circle, Puerto Iguazú, Argentina; Foz do Iguazuñ, Brasil; y Ciudad del Este, Paraguay. Source: The Library of Congress

Undoubtedly the vast majority of the individuals living in the vibrant muslim communities scattered throughout the region have no ties to terrorism and even abhor terrorism. Evidence from multiple sources in several different countries also shows that there are individuals in the region who are affiliated with terrorist groups and use the region as a cooling off area, a revenue generation area, or as a recruiting pool. Senator Richard Lugar issued a report in 2007 that stated that while there are no operational cells in Latin America or the Caribbean that pose a direct threat to the continental United States, pockets of people in the TBA, Venezuela, and Guyana are ideological, financial, and logistical supporters of terrorist groups in the Middle East.3 In fact, Islamic radicals in the TBA, Guyana, and Trinidad have launched multiple operations in and from the region over the last 20 years.

Attempted Islamic Coup in the Western Hemisphere

The Jammat al Muslimeen (JAM), a Sunni organization, is Trinidad and Tobago’s most notorious Muslim organization and the only organization in the region to attempt a coup to install a sharia-based government. The group leader, Abu Bakr, instigated a bloody coup in 1990. With over 100 JAM members, Bakr led attacks against the parliament building and took over Trinidad and Tobago’s television network. The standoff between the JAM and the government lasted 5 days while rioting and looting gripped Trinidad’s capital. Many people were killed. Bakr finally surrendered to authorities, but was only jailed temporarily as part of negotiations.4 Officials released Bakr from jail in 1992. He continues to lead the JAM and the Trinidadian authorities have re-arrested him on several occasions over the years. Most recently, he faces charges of sedition, promoting a terrorist act, and inciting others to breach the peace. He currently remains free.

Imán Yasin Abu Bakr

Imán Yasin Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr maintains ties to questionable individuals and organizations. He considers Libya’s Muammar Qadhafi a friend.5 Bakr is also well regarded in Sudan where he is considered one of the most significant Muslims in the west.6 In 2004, the JAM website had links to a Hamas website.7 The website had several other links to jihadist websites and rhetoric.8 According to a US undercover agent with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, Bakr’s group maintained ties with Afghanistan as they were shipping heroin from Afghanistan to the US via Trinidad.9 JAM members are implicated in at least talking to members of the 2007 plot to blow up John F. Kennedy airport10 and Abu Bakr studied at university with one of the operation’s plotters.11 As of 2005, JAM members were still being charged with weapons possessions; two members had 569 rounds of ammunition, a hand grenade, and a rifle during a local sting operation against them.12 In 2004, another JAM member was tried in US court for possession of 60 AK-47 rifles, 10 MAC-10 machine guns, and 10 silencers.13

Hizballah Attacks in Latin America

According to Israeli terrorism expert Ely Karmon,14 Hizballah has had a presence in Latin America since the late 1980s. It is present in the TBA, Colombia, and Venezuela. Hizballah members use free trade areas for legal trade and illegal smuggling activities. A Sao Paulo newspaper reported that it is common to find young men on the streets of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil one of the two major cities that make up the TBA, with Hizballah tee-shirts.15

The Hizballah atack in 1992
 The Hizballah atack in 1992 to the Israeli Enbassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing 29 people and wounding 252

Hizballah has an operational presence in the region. According to the Argentine government, Hizballah supporters and Iran were responsible for the bombings of the 1992 Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires and the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association in 1994. Argentina recently successfully lobbied Interpol to release international warrants for several Iranians it has charged with the bombings.16 Islamic terrorists operating out of the Triborder Region leveled the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires with a powerful bomb on 17 March 1992, killing 29 people and wounding 252. The bombing was allegedly carried out by Hizballah and coordinated by terrorist mastermind Imad Mugniyah, the official in charge of Hizballah foreign operations.17 The 1994 bombing of the Argentine-Israeli Mutual Association (AIMA) was the stronger of the two bombs and resulted in 82 deaths. Argentine officials claim a white Renault van holding a 600 pound bomb was driven into the seven story building where the explosion sheared off the front of the building.18

In another incident which has gone unclaimed, on 19 July 1992, a suicide bomber said to be Lebanese and unable to speak Spanish or English boarded a commuter flight in Colón, Panama, and detonated a bomb, killing all 21 people aboard, including 12 Jewish and Israeli businessmen, and three US citizens. The bomber was said to have a poorly forged US passport and to have not been in Panama very long.19

Since then, several additional planned acts of Islamic fundamentalist terrorism have been thwarted. For example, the arrest in 1998 of a senior Abu Nidal Organization leader in Lima, Peru, thwarted a reported plan to blow up the Israeli Embassy and a synagogue there.20 According to O Globo’s US sources, an Islamic extremist group supposedly planned an attack against the US Embassy in Montevideo, Uruguay, in April 2001, at the same time as a planned attack against the US Embassy in Quito, Ecuador. The discovery of the plot (and the consequent reinforcement of security) thwarted the attacks.21

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden was in Foz do Iguaçu, Brasil,  in 1995.

Al-Qaida and Other Sunni Links to Latin America

Over the years there have been several disturbing links from Latin America and the Caribbean to militant Sunni individuals and terrorist groups. A Brazilian magazine admits that Usama bin Ladin operative and 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammad (KSM) spent nearly 20 days in Brazil in 1995 to visit members of the muslim community there.22 While he was there, the magazine claims KSM founded a charity to help finance Usama bin Ladin. Khalid Shaikh Mohammad reportedly was hosted by Khaled Rezk El Sayed Take El Din, who is considered the mentor of the Holy Land Foundation in the TBA.23 He remains in the region. US Treasury officials have designated The Holy Land Foundation as a terrorist supporter, frozen its assets, and said the Foundation was sending funds to Hamas.

In 1996, the Brazilian police reportedly discovered that Marwan al Safadi, an explosives expert accused of having participated in the first attack on the US World Trade Center in 1993, was living in the TBA.24 In November 1996, Paraguayan authorities learned that Islamic groups in the Triborder region were planning to blow up the US Embassy in Paraguay to coincide with the first anniversary of the bombing of the Saudi National Guard headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Police who raided Safadi’s apartment in Ciudad del Este found it filled with explosives, pistols equipped with silencers, double-barreled rifles, false Canadian and US passports, and a large amount of cash.25 Eventually, Brazilian authorities captured Safadi and extradited him to the United States.26 Although sentenced to 18 months in US prison, US authorities eventually extradited Safadi to Canada, where he received a 9-year prison sentence for drug trafficking. However, al-Safadi escaped from Canada’s prisons 3 times, finally succeeding in escaping from prison in Montreal and fleeing back to South America with a false passport.27

Marwan Safadi’s case was not the first instance of Islamic Jihad terrorist activities in Latin America. In 1992, Interpol agents arrested seven alleged members of the Islamic Jihad in Quito, Ecuador. The agents claimed that they planned attacks on the Israeli ambassador in Bogotá, Colombia.28

Khalid Shaikh Mohammad
9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammad (KSM) spent nearly 20 days in Brazil in 1995

In Brazil, an al-Gama’ at Islamiyya cell had been operating in Foz do Iguacu since 1995.29 Mohammed Ali Hassan Mokhles had left Egypt in 1993 and established residency in Foz do Iguacu, Brazil.30 Latin American press claimed that Mokhles was sent to the TBA to collect funds for the Middle East and to conduct logistic support activities such as forging passports or other documents meant for Islamic jihadists.31 Press reports claim he was a member or even local leader of al-Gama’ at Islamiyya, a group linked to al-Qaida.32 Mokhles reportedly attended a training camp in Khost, Afghanistan where he received combat training prior to the Luxor assault.33 An investigative expose on Mokhles claims that US and Egyptian information says Mokhles may have been involved in the first World Trade Center explosion in New York.34Uruguayan officials arrested Mokhles in 1999 while he was trying to cross the border from Brazil with false documents. Mokhles was so desperate to have his pending extradition to Egypt overturned that while in jail awaiting travel to Egypt he attacked two inmates, hoping that he would be tried for those assaults in Uruguay and be able to stay. In 2003, Mohammed Ali Hassan Mokhles was extradited from Uruguay to Egypt.35 Egyptian officials had successfully argued that he was involved in planning a terrorist attack which killed at least 58 tourists in Luxor Egypt in 1997.

Colombian officials arrested Mohamed Abed Abdel Aal, another leader of the al Qaida-affiliated al Gama’ at Islamiyya in October 1998.36 He had been in Italy under “surveillance,” according to Colonel Germán Jaramillo Piedrahita, the head of Colombia's intelligence police, who was interviewed by Colombia's Radio Caracol on 21 October 1998.37 Abdel Aal was wanted by Egyptian authorities for his involvement in two terrorist massacres: the attack in Luxor, Egypt; and an incident in which terrorists killed 20 Greek tourists by raking them with gunfire outside their Cairo hotel on 18 April 1996.38 Jaramillo explained that sometime in 1998 Abdel Aal boarded a plane in Amsterdam bound for Ecuador because the Colombian consulate in Italy denied him a visa to travel directly to Bogotá. Sometime during 1998, Abdel Aal reportedly participated in transactions with Colombian narcotraffickers that involved arms, drugs, and money, and may have been returning to raise money.39 Colombian police arrested Mohamed Abed Abdel Aal on 19 October 1998, two days after he arrived in Bogotá by bus from Quito.40 He was subsequently deported to Ecuador. Abel Aal was later reportedly turned over to Egyptian authorities.41

Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah
 Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah

US and Panamanian officials reported that Adnan el Shukrijumah, currently on the US Federal Bureau of Investigation BOLO (Be on the Look Out For) list as an al Qaida operative, was in Panama in April 2001, possibly surveying the Panama Canal.42 When Khalid Shaik Mohammed was captured by US forces in March 2003, he claimed Shukrijuma was in charge of a new attack. Shukrijuma holds US, Guyanese, and Trinidadian passports.43 US officials claim he was trained by al Qaida to operate as a terrorist organizer and to lead or coordinate a terrorist assault.44 In June 2004, the Honduran Security Ministry announced that Shukrijuma had plotted to attack the Panama Canal.45

The press also claims that Brazilian authorities broke up an al-Gama’at al Islammiyya cell in April 2002 with the detention of a Sunni extremist, Mohammed Ali Soliman, also wanted by Egypt for involvement in the Luxor attacks.46 Another source claims Soliman was involved in other unspecified attacks in Egypt in 1994.47 According to Brazilian press reports, he too allegedly was trained in camps in Afghanistan and is associated with Mokhles.48 Brazilian officials released Soliman in September 2002 claiming that Egyptian officials failed to give Brazil sufficient evidence of Soliman’s involvement in the Luxor attacks. He lives in Brazil.

Another group, Hizballah Latin America, has two cells. One is in Venezuela and the other in Argentina. It is unclear what the connection is between this group and Hizballah, but the group claims solidarity with Hizballah, Iran, and the Islamist revolution. In Venezuela, the group took on the name, Venezuela Hezbollah apparently sometime in 2005. The majority of its members are from the Wayuu tribe, a small indigenous group in Venezuela which converted to Islam a few years ago under their leader Teodoro Darnott.49 In 2006, Venezuelan officials found two explosive devises in Caracas, one near the US Embassy. The devises did not detonate, but contained pro-Hizballah pamphlets. Venezuela Hezbollah took responsibility for the bombs and threatened further attacks.50 Venezuelan authorities subsequently arrested and convicted Darnott. In Argentina, the Hizballah Latin America group has direct ties to Iran through the Arab Argentine Home and the Argentine-Islamic Association-ASAI de La Plata which are financed by and cooperate with the Iranian Embassy in Buenos Aires.51 It also has ties to more radical Muslims in Argentina and its website has extremely anti-Semitic and anti-Israel propaganda.52

Triborder Area: Local Investigators Crack Down on Terrorist Suspects

The Triborder Area of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay is one of the most notorious in Latin America as an area where all types of criminality takes place, including harboring of Islamic terrorist facilitators. It is widely accepted among terrorism specialists that individuals associated with Hizballah and to a lesser extent associated with Sunni groups, live and work in this region. Many articles and news stories have been written about the area in the US and regional press. The US Treasury Department has frozen the assets of a number of individuals who live in this area, claiming they are associated with terrorist groups. The Islamic terrorist group affiliation, coupled with the illegal commerce that takes place in the region, create a concerning mix. As early as 1995, Ambassador Philip Wilcox, former State Department Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism, testified before the International Relations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives that Hizballah activities in the Triborder region involved narcotics, smuggling, and terrorism. He further asserted that Hizballah also had cells in Colombia and Venezuela, was engaging in fund-raising and recruitment, and was receiving guidance and logistical support from Iranian intelligence officers assigned to Iranian embassies in the region.53

Assad Ahmad Barakat
Assad Ahmad Barakat is one of the principal coordinators of a Hizballah financial network in the TBA. He currently is serving a six year sentence in Paraguay for tax evasion.

A strong TBA Hizballah leadership exists. Paraguayan officials first attempted to arrest Assad Ahmad Barakat in 2002. He is currently in jail in Paraguay for tax evasion. He lived and worked in the TBA area with his brother Hattem. He also had businesses in Iquique, Chile. Local US officials, and the press have alternately called him the Hizballah leader in the TBA, the Hizballah finance chief, and one of the Hizballah clan leaders. His brother reportedly took over the daily activities of the clan until he too was arrested by the Paraguayans, for document fraud. Assad Barakat has another brother who is a sheikh at a Hizballah mosque in Lebanon. Assad’s exact title within Hizballah may not be known, but it is clear that he has strong connections to Hizballah. Paraguayan police found several documents in his office and computer when they arrested him. The documents were from Hizballah leaders thanking Assad for his support. One letter was from Hizballah leader Shaik Hassan Nasrallah, thanking Assad for money for the martyrs program. Meanwhile, Paraguayan reporters have also Linked Assad Barakat to al Qaida by claiming he owned the Mondial Engineering and Construction Company which is suspected of having made contributions to al Qaida.54

Also in 2002, the Paraguayan police arrested Ali Nizar Darhough, nephew of Mohammad Dahrough who was a well known Sunni leader in the TBA.55 Paraguayan officials told New Yorker reporter Jeffrey Goldberg that Ali Nizar and his uncle were the al Qaida point men for the TBA.56 Mohammad Dahrough’s name was reportedly found in an address book belonging to Abu Zubaydah, a high ranking al–Qaida official captured by the US.57 Mohammad escaped the TBA in September 1998 when Paraguayan officials went out to arrest him for making statements in support of terrorism and for planning possible attacks against US, British, and Israeli facilities in the TBA.58 Mohammad is last reported to be in Dubai.59 Press reports claim he left TBA to join al-Qaida.60 Ali Nizar was sending as much as $80,000 a month to banks in the US, the Middle East, and Europe.61 Other reports claim that Ali Nizar sent $10 million in 2000-2001 from the TBA to US dummy corporations that al-Qaida and HAMAS used as fronts.62 Most of the money went into an account under Mohammad’s name in Dallas, Texas which is a key site for the Holy Land Foundation which the US Treasury says helped to fund HAMAS.63 When arrested, Ali Nizar had large quantities of Iraqi, Jordanian, and Slovenian bank notes.64 Ali Nizar was convicted in Paraguay in 2003 of tax evasion and he received a 5-year sentence.65

US Treasury Department Freezes Hizballah Assets in TBA

Most of the activity the individuals associated with Islamic terrorists are involved with are revenue generation and logistics such as document fraud and money laundering. The Paraguayan media reported in April 2006 that millions of dollars were being funneled from the TBA to the Middle East. Several governments in Latin America and the Caribbean take exception to US allegations that local supporters of Islamic terrorist groups raise funds for the terrorist groups in their countries. In December 2006, the US Treasury Department announced that 9 individuals in Brazil and Paraguay were financing Islamic terrorism, several of whom the Argentine government charged, were involved in logistics support for the 1994 AMIA bombing. Ali Muhammad Kazan is on that list. As a manager of a Lebanese school in the TBA, he allegedly collected $500,000 for Hizballah. Another alleged Hizballah associate, Sobhi Mahmoud Fayad, sent over $3 million to the Hizballah Martyrs Foundation in 2000 alone, according to documents the Paraguayan police found when they arrested him. Yet another individual, Mohamed Tarabain Chamas, is the manager of a five-story commercial building in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay (part of the TBA). The Treasury Department says he is responsible for counter-intelligence for Hizballah in the TBA.

Action Returns to the Caribbean Area

In May 2006, the Trinidad Express quotes Trinidadian National Security Minister Martin Joseph as confirming that 2 Trinidad and Tobago citizens who were jailed in Canada for involvement in acts of terrorism had been deported to Trinidad and Tobago. These were likely Barry Adams, alias Tyrone Cole and Wali Muhammad, Alias Robert Johnson, who are believed to be members of the Jammat al Fuqra, a militant Pakistan-based terrorist group. The men had been imprisoned in Canada in 1994 for conspiring to set off bombs in a Hindu temple and a cinema in Toronto. Prosecutors claimed that the men had lived in Texas under aliases for several years before attempting to carry out their plan. They served their full sentences without parole and Canada deported them upon their release.

Abdul Kadir and Kareem Ibrahim

Kareem Ibrahim, 56, from Trinidad and Tobago (right) and Abdul Kadir from Guyana (left) who plotted to blow up gas lines leading to John F. Kennedy airport in New York., in 2007

In June 2007, a joint Guyanese/Trinidadian/FBI investigation culminated in the arrest of 4 individuals who plotted to blow up gas lines leading to John F. Kennedy airport in New York. The individuals were US, Guyanese, and Trinidadian. The case remains pending in US courts. One of the alleged leaders of the plot, Abdul Kadir, is reportedly an acquaintance of JAM leader Abu Bakr in Trinidad. Members of the group allegedly met with JAM members to obtain support for their plot. Kadir is a former Guyanese parliament member.

In June 2007, Trinidad’s Attorney General John Jeremie told the local press that he believed the country’s most notorious group, the JAM, was under control, but that the “landscape had changed since 1990… the structure is different, there are a number of different splinter groups and they pose as much as a threat we think as the original group posed in 1990.” He went on to say these splinter groups are also involved with criminal activity.

Jamaica is another area of concern, especially now that Sheikh Abdullah el Faisal, the extremist cleric who was convicted in the Britain for soliciting murder and inciting racial violence has been deported back to Jamaica. El-Faisal, a Jamaican-born Islamic cleric, was the first person in more than a century to be convicted under Britain's 1861 Offences Against the Person Act after he was found guilty of soliciting murder and fueling racial hatred in 2003. During his trial, tapes of his sermons were played where he extolled his listeners to “kill Hindus and Jews and other non Muslims, like cockroaches.” During his four-week trial in 2003, followers watched as the court heard el-Faisal's voice exhorting young Muslims to accept the deaths of women and children as "collateral damage" and to "learn to fly planes, drive tanks... load your guns and to use missiles." Following the completion of his sentence on those charges in Britain, authorities there deported him in May 2007. Jermain Lindsay one of the 2005 London transport system bombers, was also born in Jamaica and connected to Faisal. Press reports claim that Shaikh Faisal influenced Lindsay to partake in the UK bombing plot. He reportedly attended at least one of el Faisal’s sermons and listened to his tapes.

What’s Next?

The above list of suspicious and in some cases outright terrorist activities, shows there is reason for Latin American and Caribbean nations to be vigilant against Islamic terrorist group activity. The US also needs to continue to pay attention to possible inroads by these terrorist groups and by other Islamic extremists through Latin America and the Caribbean. The list of arrests and convictions also shows that many of the governments in the region are aware of the dangers associated with these terrorist groups.

Two equally likely possibilities exist for future Islamic extremist activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. One possibility will allow for some warning, the other will not without increased vigilance. Either course of action would result in the loss of innocent lives.

The first scenario, and the one that we might have some advance notice of, is an attack by Hizballah. If relations between Iran and the US or Israel deteriorate, it is possible Iran would use its well-organized Hizballah group in the region as a surrogate to launch attacks against either Israel or the US, much like it did in Buenos Aires in the 1990s. Under this scenario, an attack could happen using local Hizballah sympathizers for logistics and support and the attack would likely take place in the region. With this scenario, counter-terrorist specialists would have some warning that an attack could take place based on the deteriorating relations with Iran, but would likely have little warning of where it would take place.

Another, equally likely scenario, but one that is harder for counter-terrorism professionals to plan against, would be a group of homegrown extremists planning and launching an attack against US interests either in the region or from the region in the US. This would be much like the JFK airport plot scenario. Without vigilance by US officials and officials in the region, it would be difficult to halt this type of plot. Increased vigilance and support from the populaces in the Caribbean and Latin America to report unusual activity is needed to help mitigate this threat.

Clearly, Islamic terrorist groups in Latin America and the Caribbean pose threats to US interests. Ignoring these threats or explaining them away as US witch hunts gives those who would do harm to innocents more space to plot and plan.


1. This article reflects the views of the author and not those of the US government.

2. Asuncion ABC, “About 50 Alleged Extremists Were Investigated in the TBA Region,” 17 July 05.

3. La Nacion, “US Concerned About Triborder,” by Hugo Alconada Mon, 21 January 07

4. Terrorism Monitor, Vol 3, Issue 20, “Al-Qaida’s Inroads into the Caribbean,” 21 October 2005

5. Port of Spain Trinidad Express, “Time to Mount Tighter Musilmeen Watch,” by Camini Marajh, 22 August 2004.

6. Ibid

7. Ibid


9. Port of Spain Trinidad Express, “T&T—a heroin Rout to US,” by Darryl Heeralal, 29 May 2005

10. Georgetown Starbroek News, “Kadir, Ibrahim Remanded” by Nigel Williams , 5 June 2007

11. Port of Spain Trinidad Express, “Jeremie: Splinter Groups of Jamaat Pose Danger,” by Juhel Browne, 6 June 2007

12. Port of Spain Trinidad Express, 29 November 2005

13. Port of Spain Newsday, “Extradition of a Musilmeen Member,” by Francis Joseph, 26 September 2004

14. Santiago El Mercurio,“The Presence of Hizballah in Latin America” by Juan Antonio Munoz, 11 February 2007

15. Sao Paulo Folha, “Shia From TBA Do Not Comment on Hizballah,” by Jose Maschio 18 December 2006

16. Herald Tribune, “Interpol votes against Iran in Argentina terror case,” 6 November 2007

17. Library of Congress, “A Global Overview of Narcotics-funded Terrorist and other Extremist Groups,” May 2002

18. The New Yorker, “Hezbollah Sets Up Operations in South America and the United States,” by Jeffrey Goldberg, 28 October 2002

19. Library of Congress, “A Global Overview of Narcotics-funded Terrorist and other Extremist Groups,” May 2002

20. Ibid

21. Ibid

22. Rio de Janeiro Epoca, “Are the Terrorists Here?” by Matheus Machado and Murilo Ramos, 12 March 2007

23. Asuncion ABC, “About 50 Alleged Extremists Were Investigated in the TBA Region,” 17 JUL 05

24. Ibid

25. Library of Congress, “A Global Overview of Narcotics-funded Terrorist and other Extremist Groups,” May 2002

26. Rio de Janeiro Epoca, “Are the Terrorists Here?” by Matheus Machado and Murilo Ramos, 12 March 2007

27. Library of Congress, “A Global Overview of Narcotics-funded Terrorist and other Extremist Groups,” May 2002

28. Ibid

29. Porto Alegre Zero Hora, “Police Say That Terrorist Cell Dismantled With Soliman’s Arrest,” 17 April 2002

30. Montevideo El Pais, “Egypt Meets Uruguayan Court’s Terms to Extradite Terrorist Suspect,” 2 July 2003

31. Buenos Aires Clarin, “Bin Ladin Followers in TBA Probed,” by Daniel Sanoro, 18 July 1999

32. Asuncion ABC, “Order From Above Stops al-Gama’ at Suspect Probe,” by Vladimir Jara, 8 July 2002

33. Cairo MENA, “Man Extradited to Egypt for 1999 Terrorist Attack at Luxor,” 10 July 2003

34. London Al Sharq al Awsat, “Paper on Arrest of Islamist In Uruguay,” by Eduardo Privi, 11 February 1999

35. Cairo MENA, “Man Extradited to Egypt for 1999 Terrorist Attack at Luxor,” 10 July 2003

36. Library of Congress, “A Global Overview of Narcotics-funded Terrorist and other Extremist Groups,” May 2002

37. Ibid

38. Ibid

39. Ibid

40. Ibid

41. Ibid

42. Terrorism Monitor, vol 3 Issue 20, “Al Qaida’s Inroads into the Caribbean” by Chris Zambelis, 21 October 2005

43., 11 November 2007

44. Ibid

45. Ibid

46. Porto Alegre Zero Hora, “Police Say That Terrorist Cell Dismantled With Soliman’s Arrest,” 17 April 2002

47. Sao Paulo Folha de Sao Paulo, “Brazilian Federal Police Arrest Alleged Egyptian Terrorist in Foz do Iguacu,” by Jose Maschio, 16 April 2002

48. Porto Alegre Zero Hora, “Brazilian Authorities Treat Soliman Arrest as Isolated Case,” 17 April 2002

49. Santiago El Mercurio, “Chile: Israeli Expert Discussed Hizballah Presence in Latin America,” by Juan Antonio Munoz, 11 February 2007

50. Institute for Counter-Terrorism, “Hezbollah AmericaLatina: Strange Group or Real Threat?” by Dr. Ely Karmon, 14 November 2006

51. Santiago El Mercurio, “Chile: Israeli Expert Discussed Hizballah Presence in Latin America,” by Juan Antonio Munoz, 11 February 2007

52. Institute for Counter-Terrorism, “Hezbollah AmericaLatina: Strange Group or Real Threat?” by Dr. Ely Karmon, 14 November 2006

53. Library of Congress, “A Global Overview of Narcotics-funded Terrorist and other Extremist Groups,” May 2002

54. Ibid

55. Ibid

56. The New Yorker, “Hezbollah Sets Up Operations in South America and the United States,” by Jeffrey Goldberg 28 October 2002

57. Asuncion ABC Color, “Triborder Region Injects $20Million a Year for Islamic Cause,” 18 July 2005

58. Asuncion ABC Color, “Egyptian Suspect Wanted in AMIA Bombing Case,” 22 September 1998

59. Asuncion ABC Color, 23 September 2001

60. Ibid

61. The New Yorker, “Hezbollah Sets Up Operations in South America and the United States,” by Jeffrey Goldberg 28 October 2002

62. Asuncion ABC Color, “Triborder Region Injects $20Million a Year for Islamic Cause,” 18 July 2005

63. Ibid

64. Asuncion ABC Color, “Police Arrest HAMAS Member’s Nephew on Piracy Charges,” 3 July 2002

65. Asuncion ABC Color, 28 August 2003

66. Asuncion ABC Color, “Bank Accounts for Sending Money Abriad Detected,” by Hector Guerin, 7 April 2006

67. Sao Paulo Folha, “Shia From TBA Do Not Comment on Hizballah,” by Jose Maschio 18 DEC 06

68. Asuncion ABC, 30 May 02

69. Rio de Janeiro Epoca, “Are theTerrorist Here?” by Matheus Machado, 12 March 2007

70. Port of Spain Trinidad Express, 5 May 2006

71. Port of Spain the Trinidad Guardian, “Trinis Deported for Terror Links,” by Dominic Kalispersad, 8 April 2006

72. Ibid

73. Georgetown Guyana Chronicle, “Police Say Maps from Kadir’s Home Date Back to 1980s,” by Mark Ramotar, 9 June 2007

74. Port of Spain Trinidad Express, “Jeremie: Splinter Groups of Jamaat Pose Danger,” by Juhel Browne, 6 June 2007

75. The Sunday Observer, “Islamic Community Extends Olive Branch to El-Faisal,” by Petre Williams, 27 May 2007

76. The Times, “7/7 Hate Preacher Deported to Jamaica,” 25 May 2007

77. Ibid

78. Kingston the Gleaner, “We Will Meet with El Faisal, While We Investigate,” 29 May 2007

79. The Times, “7/7 Hate Preacher Deported to Jamaica,” 25 May 2007


Ms. Renee Pruneau Novakoff Ms. Renee Pruneau Novakoff  has been a national security analyst for twenty-five years. Prior to joining USSOUTHCOM, Ms. Novakoff analyzed Soviet issues, nonproliferation issues, and strategic futures issues. In 1995, she was a Congressional Fellow for Senator Sam Nunn, developing hearings on WMD Terrorism. Ms. Novakoff has published scholarly articles on WMD and leadership issues in Central Asia. She is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Seminar XXI. Ms. Novakoff received her BA from Vanderbilt University and MA from Boston College. She was awarded the Joint Civilian Service Achievement medal in 2002 and has been SOUTHCOM’s nominee for South Florida Federal Employee of the Year on three occasions.


The conclusions and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author cultivated in the freedom of expression, academic environment of Air University. They do not reflect the official position of the U.S. Government, Department of Defense, the United States Air Force or the Air University.

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