Air University Review, July-August 1984
Colonel William C. Stancik, USAFR
R. Cargill Hall
JUSTIN Smith Morrill believed implacably that an educated citizenry, prepared to defend the state, best ensured the well-being of a democratic republic.1 His faith in public education and in other egalitarian notions was as unshakable as the granite of his native Vermont. The people of the region recognized and appreciated the man and his principles, electing and reelecting Morrill to public office between 1855 and 1898, first to the U.S. House of Representatives and then to the Senate. Indeed, Morrill had no sooner found his seat in the House in 1855 than he began to work vigorously for both vocational and military training in state-supported colleges. Before the end of his first term, he introduced numerous bills to "provide education for the working classes." All of them languished in committee or expired on the floor.2 In 1857 his land-grant bill passed both the House and Senate, only to be vetoed by President Buchanan. But a few years later, in a country deeply divided and at war, the measure passed. Signed into law by President Lincoln on 2 July 1862, the brief, two-page Morrill Act would move the distinguished educator Andrew D. White to exclaim: "In all the annals of republics, there is no more significant utterance of confidence in national destiny out from the midst of national calamity."3
The Morrill Act, or Land Grant College Act of 1862 as it became known, directed that public land be apportioned to state governments in blocks of 30,000 acres for each U.S. senator and representative.* The states were to use funds from the sale of these lands, a combined area greater in size than Rhode Island, for the "endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one agricultural and mechanical college offering military studies."4 The state of Connecticut agreed immediately to the provisions of the Morrill Act and, based on the sale of script, established a permanent endowment of $135,000. The interest that accrued on this endowment by 1881 helped establish the University of Connecticut.5 Two other states, Iowa and Vermont, also requested funds through their legislatures in 1862, leading to the expansion of Iowa State University and the University of Vermont. A year later, thirteen more states in the Union sponsored fourteen universities and colleges. After the Civil War, Arkansas and Mississippi applied for land-grant status; and by 1886, colleges in all eleven states of the old Confederacy were also funded under the act.6
*The Morrill Act owed a special debt to an act passed by the Congress of the Confederation in 1787--the Northwest Ordinance--which provided for the admission of territories as states. Under that ordinance, one-sixteenth parcel of land in the new state was to be allocated to education; hence, a precedent for the land-grant programs of the nineteenth century.
Although establishing the foundation for student "military training," the Morrill Act contained no specific provisions for a military curriculum. Each university developed its own course of study. Following the Civil War, veterans, retired Army officers, and academic members of the faculty served as military instructors. Among land-grant schools, the number of hours invested in military class or drill varied greatly. More often than not, however, funding was inadequate, college military training was of poor quality, and the Reserve graduates, although entered in the Army Register, were not awarded commissions. Among college faculty across the land, the training of Reserve officers received scant support; among students, the Officer Reserve Corps evoked little interest.
If the Civil War guaranteed that the United States would remain a single, undivided continental power, the four-month Spanish-American war in 1898 brought to the nation an overseas empire. The Philippines, Midway, Guam, and Puerto Rico ensured that the country would enter the twentieth century a world power. These new territories required, at least temporarily, troops of occupation. Meanwhile, the Western frontier had disappeared, troops had fought their last major battle with the Indians, and the Army concentrated its units into battalions and regiments. Garrison schools at every post taught military skills, while a service school established at Fort Leavenworth offered infantry and cavalry tactics. The Army conducted regimental troop maneuvers directed from Washington by the General Staff and the Army Chief of Staff.8 But Americans, secure behind oceans on the east and west, preoccupied with expanding commercial opportunities and a flowering of industrial technology, remained little disposed toward supporting things military, Regular or Reserve.
A few years later, however, the Great War in Europe prompted Congress to pass the National Defense Act (NDA) of 1916. That act increased the General Staff from forty-five to fifty-five officers; authorized peacetime units of divisions, corps, and armies; and raised the manpower ceiling of the Regular Army. Building on the Morrill Act of 1862, it also created a formal Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC). The NDA authorized the President to establish ROTC units not only at land-grant colleges but at all accredited four-year institutions. Officers of the Regular Army would serve as the professors of military science and tactics, and each participating institution had to provide "at least 100 physically fit male students." The act instructed the Secretary of War to establish "standard courses of theoretical and practical military training" and provide "arms, uniforms, and equipment" to the units. Graduates who completed successfully the four-year course of military instruction* and signed under oath to serve the United States in the Officer Reserve Corps for ten years would be appointed Reserve officers by the President.9 The Officer Reserve Corps and the fledgling ROTC program together furnished 30,000 of 200,000 officers during World War I. These reservists became an important component of the officer corps as the army grew from 127,500 to 4,000,000 soldiers between 1917 and 1919.10
After the defeat of Germany and conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles, Congress amended the National Defense Act in 1920, reducing the period of inactive Reserve duty from ten to five years. That same year, the Army Air Service established separate Air ROTC units at four schools with strong engineering departments: the Universities of California (Berkeley) and Illinois, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Texas A8cM. The next year, the Air Service established units at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Washington. New York University joined the group in 1923.11 In the face of postwar demobilization and a sharply reduced manpower ceiling, however, Army leaders in the 1920s struggled just to retain the best qualified Regular officers. Though rendering standard many aspects of ROTC instruction, they offered this program, which turned out still more officers, little active support. In the meantime, various civilian groups, appalled by the enormous destruction of the four-year "Great War," protested standing armies and military training and advocated abolishing all 223 Army and Air ROTC units across the country. Congress, little inclined in the 1920s toward spending for national security, slashed Reserve training funds; by 1925 only seven Regular officers and five enlisted men remained assigned to the Air ROTC units.12 By 1935, further cuts in the Army budget eliminated all Air ROTC units,13 and a committee of the American Association of Land Grant Colleges and State Universities charged: "No expense, explanation, or alibi can persuade anyone that the Army is not indifferent toward ROTC . . . ."14 By the end of the 1930s the order in Europe, struck at Versailles, collapsed. On 10 May 1940, Nazi Germany struck at France through the low countries; on 22 June, France surrendered. The threat of a widening war, tension between the United States and Japan in the Pacific, and an impending shortage of trained Army officers and other military resources, overcame isolationist sentiment among America's political leaders. On 27 August 1940, Congress passed a joint resolution that authorized the President to call the National Guard and Reserve components to active duty for twelve months. Secretary of War Henry Stimson called up 2700 Reserve officers immediately, and by June 1941 the number of Reserve officers on extended active duty had grown to 57,039 out of an available pool of 73,922.15 Virtually all of these reservists were ROTC graduates. Reservists now outnumbered 14,477 Regular officers on active duty four to one. Acknowledging the importance of this Reserve cadre, Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall later confided to Secretary of the Army Frank Pace: "Just what we would have done in the first phases of our mobilization and training without . . . [the ROTC graduate], I do not know."16 The 200 Army ROTC units that existed in December 1941 simply could not meet the enormous demand for trained officers that followed the U.S. declaration of war against Japan and Germany. The Navy and War departments abandoned their four-year college ROTC programs in favor of special ninety-day officer candidate schools. In spite of American ambivalence toward college military training in the interregnum between wars, ROTC cadets trained during the 1920s and 1930s served with distinction in the Army Air Forces during World War II. Ohio State University could claim Curtis E. LeMay, who pioneered strategic bombing tactics in Europe and became the first ROTC graduate to serve as a Chief of Staff . Texas A&M's cadet corps produced Bernard Schriever and O. P. Weyland. General Schriever served in the Southwest Pacific and retired in 1965 as commander of the Air Force Systems Command. General Weyland, who retired in 1959 as commander of the Tactical Air Command, supported Lieutenant General George Patton's Third Army in its historic dash across France; Patton termed him "the best damn general in the Air Corps."17 From Khaki To Blue
*The NDA gave to the participating institutions the option of making the course of military instruction elective or compulsory for the first two years.
U.S. military forces demobilized rapidly after World War II. Between June 1945 and May 1947, the Army Air Forces, an air force that had counted 2,300,000 men and women and 68,000 aircraft, nosedived to approximately 300,000 active-duty personnel and 25,000 aircraft.18 While millions of American servicemen returned to civilian pursuits, how best to recruit and train officer candidates in the ROTC again presented the military a difficult challenge. Military leaders judged a pool of trained reservists to be essential in the postwar years, and on 22 August 1946 the Army Chief of Staff, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, signed General Order 124 establishing seventy-seven Air ROTC units under the Air Training Command (ATC). A few weeks later, on 15 November, Headquarters Army Air Forces transferred Air ROTC from ATC to the Air Defense Command (ADC).19
However essential the ultimate pool of trained Reserve officers might be, the initial, nationwide enrollment of 8700 cadets in the fall of 1946 fell far short of the 16,000-cadet goal set for the Army Air Forces. Worse to some military observers, the curriculum followed the format of the Army program closely. Basic air cadets attended an Army class three hours a week for thirty-two weeks in their khaki uniforms. Only the third and fourth years featured military courses with a specific aeronautical flavor. Eventually, the newly commissioned second lieutenant would accept a Reserve assignment in an occupational specialty, such as administration, aircraft maintenance, communications, meteorology, statistical services, supply, or transportation.20 In keeping with Army policy of the interwar period, the five-year Reserve commitment did not include a mandatory active-duty tour. The Army Air Forces filled junior officer mobilization billets from the, ranks of Air ROTC Distinguished Military Graduates. Resident professors of military science and tactics nominated candidates for a commission in the Regular Army from these distinguished graduates. Upon accepting a Regular commission, a new second lieutenant reported for a tour of extended active duty.21
Air ROTC professors of military science and tactics in 1946 needed to have field grade rank and a pilot's rating and be between twenty-seven and forty-eight years old. They also needed three years of active commissioned service, twelve months overseas duty, a bachelor's degree, and above-average effectiveness ratings. Military instructors, on the other hand, could be nonrated and less than twenty-seven years old. Enlisted instructors were exempt from specific educational requirements but, according to regulations, had to exhibit an excellent military bearing and "an outgoing personality."22 These requirements, established amidst organizational changes and an impending separation of the Army and Air Force, might have been adequate, had they not been largely ignored.
Transferring Air ROTC from the Air Training Command to the Air Defense Command in November 1946 hardly improved the quality of instruction. Most college units operated without training aids or texts. At the beginning of 1947, after observing the air detachments in New England schools, the Eleventh Air Force historian wrote: "The sum total of Air ROTC equipment on hand at each college could be contained in a cigar box and consisted of some 30 Kodachrome slides of cloud formations."23 In April, Major General Thomas J. Hanley, Jr., commander of ADC's Eleventh Air Force, inspected Air ROTC units at Purdue, Ohio State, and Duquesne universities. In his report, Hanley not only confirmed his historian's contention about shortages of books and supplies but also declared ROTC instructors to be poorly trained.24 But Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer, commanding general of Air Defense Command, immersed in organizing the country's air defense forces, did little more than acknowledged Hanley's report.25 The Air ROTC program claimed a decidedly low priority at ADC.
In Washington on 18 September 1947, Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson administered the oath of office to the first Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington. A few days later, President Truman formally appointed General Carl A. Spaatz the first Chief of Staff of the Air Force. A Department of Defense order on 26 September transferred all units and personnel of the Army Air Forces, including Air ROTC, to the United States Air Force. Headquarters United States Air Force (USAF) announced plans in December 1947 to merge the Air Defense Command and Tactical Air Command to form a super command--the Continental Air Command (ConAC). This reorganization, completed one year later in December 1948 and intended to strengthen the air defense and close air support missions, placed all tactical fighter resources, including all active, reserve, and guard personnel, under a single commander. Besides its "flying and fighting missions," ConAC also gained along with ADC the responsibility for what was now termed AFROTC.26
Although this consolidation appeared impressive on paper, the multiple missions and responsibilities created numerous management difficulties for the new command. ConAC leaders found themselves unable to solve all of them expeditiously, and within two years, Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt S. Vandenberg announced the separation of the air defense and tactical air missions. Headquarters USAF elevated Tactical Air Command from a subordinate to a major command on 1 December 1950; exactly one month later, Headquarters USAF returned ADC to major command status also. Within another year, both of these commands were led by four-star generals. ConAC, now charged primarily with the Reserve training programs, was reduced to a major general's billet.27
All the while, vivid memories of the Axis powers and public awareness of postwar Soviet actions in Berlin, Czechoslovakia, and China helped ensure widespread support for the Reserve program. ConAC officials sought to develop an effective program that met both public expectations and the needs of the Air Force. Between 1948 and 1952, Headquarters ConAC provided military teachers, course curriculum, summer encampment, manuals, and training aids to the AFROTC. The director of AFROTC, a colonel or lieutenant colonel at Headquarters ConAC, attempted to guide the program. He presided over a decentralized AFROTC, with units grouped among the command's four numbered air forces: the First at Mitchel AFB, New York; the Fourth at Hamilton AFB, California; the Tenth at Selfridge AFB, Michigan; and the Fourteenth at Robins AFB, Georgia. The numbered air forces conducted the annual AFROTC inspections, established new AFROTC units, and provided logistical support. In AFROTC matters, the Air Force commanders, who outranked the colonel-director, devoted most of their attention to resolving or papering over the interservice friction that arose inevitably on campuses with two or more ROTC units. The Deputy for Personnel at each numbered air force actually managed the program through his own AFROTC director, usually another colonel or lieutenant colonel.28 At the end of 1951, AFROTC units with an enrollment of approximately 145,000 cadets could be found on 205 campuses around the country.29 Within the decentralized ConAC structure, command supervision was casual; standards of uniformity between and among the numbered air forces and AFROTC were nonexistent.
The AFROTC director at Headquarters ConAC supervised the teaching of the specialized curriculum. In many cases, ConAC assigned noncommissioned officers to teach AFROTC courses. These instructors, qualified only in their own career fields, tended to emphasize detail in specialty areas, such as supply, administration, transportation, and the like. The specialized curriculum, in turn, forced ConACofficials to project USAF junior officer manning in each career field four years in advance, because the Korean War prompted amendments in 1951 to the Universal Military Training and Service Act that required Reserve officers to serve two years of their five-year Reserve commitment on active duty.30
Air Force commanders at war in Korea, however, wanted more pilots and navigators--not nonrated specialists--for combat duty. Responding to that demand, Headquarters USAF prepared in 1952 a revised educational statement of objectives that directed ConAC to train cadets as officers in the Reserve and Regular components of the Air Force.31 A new "general curriculum," introduced in September 1953, would allow all cadets to receive the same course of instruction. Only after he reported on active duty would a second lieutenant receive flight or specialty training. Where before the specialized curriculum had required about seventy-five different texts, the general curriculum required but thirty-one.32 Subsequent evaluations showed that the general curriculum better met the needs of the Air Force.33 It became a permanent part of AFROTC, as did a new uniform and emblem.
During and immediately after World War II, members of the Army Air Forces had worn the standard Army uniform; only the arm-of-service colors distinguished the airman from the soldier. This situation changed on 24 January 1949, when President Truman authorized Secretary of the Air Force Symington to replace the khaki uniform, hallmark of the Regular Army since 1903, with Air Force blue. On 18 February 1953, Headquarters USAF approved an AFROTC emblem designed by Captain Edward P. Winslow and Second Lieutenant Arthur C. Kane.34 The circular emblem, containing a thundercloud overlaid with a winged torch of knowledge, completed the AFROTC transition to blue. But however much the AFROTC cadet might have taken pride in his own new uniform, Air Force leaders had yet to decide where control of the program should best reside.
Back in 1946, the Army Air Forces had established the Air University at Maxwell Field, Montgomery, Alabama, under the command of Major General Muir S. Fairchild. Air University offered professional, specialized education to prepare commissioned and noncommissioned officers for greater command and staff responsibilities. Between 1946 and 1951, Air University grew rapidly. The man responsible for much of this growth was General George C. Kenney, who on 29 October 1948 became Air University commander. During World War II, as General Douglas MacArthur's top air commander, Kenney had directed the successful air battle against the Japanese in the Southwest Pacific.35 Now wearing four stars, he wrote to Headquarters USAF in mid-1951 that AFROTC should be removed from the jurisdiction of ConAC and added to Air University's professional education program. Kenney wanted a general officer in charge of a headquarters for AFROTC, reporting to Air University and responsible for the curriculum, comptroller, materiel, and operations. He also proposed ten intermediate headquarters (headed by colonels) to manage and control the detachments directly.36 Kenney's recommendations triggered extended Air Staff studies and sharply worded ConAC rebuttals.
Another reduction in its mission unquestionably threatened ConAC as a major command. During September 1951, as the debate intensified in Washington, Major General Willis H. Hale, ConAC commander, wrote Headquarters USAF that ConAC's numbered air forces could best administer the AFROTC program and could do so with one-third fewer people than the number proposed by Air University. The Reserve program, he asserted, was "too large and geographically dispersed to be supervised from a central location."37 But Air University had done its homework; its plan of organization, incorporating a single chain of command supported by a professional headquarters staff, appeared not only feasible but desirable when compared with ConAC's decentralized arrangement. Air Force Chief of Staff General Nathan F. Twining adopted Kenney's proposal, and on 1 August 1952, Air University gained responsibility for AFROTC.38
At Air University, Brigadier General Matthew K. Deichelmann, Deputy Commander for Education, had quarterbacked the efforts to secure AFROTC. Appointed as the first AFROTC commandant on 1 August 1952, he was authorized a headquarters and detachments, with an overall personnel strength of 1685 officers, 1555 airmen, and 29 civilians.39 The new AFROTC headquarters opened a few weeks later in a commercial office building in downtown Montgomery, Alabama, about one-half mile from Maxwell Air Force Base. Two years later, on 2 July 1954, the headquarters moved to another downtown building. Finally, on 2 February 1956, AFROTC acquired its permanent headquarters at Maxwell Air Force Base. For AFROTC, a decade of turbulence that embraced major changes in curriculum, a change in uniform, four changes of command, and seven changes of headquarters location had come to an end.
Of all the changes, perhaps none was more profound than the increase in emphasis on the training of rated officers. Between 1946 and 1952, 25,072 cadets had pinned on gold bars; however, only 2521 of these officers had entered pilot training.40 Early in 1953, as the Korean War neared an end, AFROTC leaders made every effort to increase the pilot and navigator flying training programs. They invited Korean War veterans to speak to prospective cadets about the skills required for combat flying. They reduced the pilot and navigator active-duty commitment from four to three years, and they allowed the new lieutenants to schedule their flight training to coincide with that of their classmates. Finally, AFROTC leaders divided cadets among four broad categories: flying, engineering, administrative, and those with prior enlisted service. 41
By the spring of 1953, the effort began to pay dividends when 2412 of the 11,259 AFROTC graduates entered flying training. In terms of rated officers, AFROTC now appeared to be more nearly in step with plans that called for an Air Force of 143 combat wings by 1955. But on 29 July 1953, President Eisenhower directed the Secretary of Defense to reduce that goal sharply and to aim instead for 120 combat wings by 1956.42 Responding to this directive, Headquarters USAF reduced its Air Force officer requirements by 30,000.43 The number of cadets entering the AFROTC junior class in 1953 was halved, from 15,000 to 7500. Only flying or engineering cadets remained in the most advanced programs. To establish a set annual rate of officers commissioned, Headquarters USAF directed AFROTC to establish a quota for flying, engineering, and administrative officers, in keeping with anticipated Air Force needs. Thereafter, no AFROTC detachment could exceed its quota without Headquarters AFROTC approval. The total quota for 1957, for example, included 4000 pilots, 1500 navigators, 960 engineers and meteorologists, and 225 administrative officers.44 Like the general curriculum, the quota system and officer category designations became permanent features of AFROTC. Except for the period immediately following the Vietnam War, these features would allow the Air Force to meet educational cadet contracts and still tailor the production of officers to its needs.
On college campuses around the country in the mid-1950s, other changes improved the AFROTC program. The senior cadets assumed command of the cadet corps, replacing their Air Force instructors. They led the corps in drill, published orders, conducted promotion boards, recruited, and planned social activities. The Arnold Air Society, an honor society established at the University of Cincinnati in 1947 to recognize outstanding cadets, installed chapters at most colleges and universities. To further hone the selection of officers, Headquarters AFROTC began to administer a general aptitude test, later referred to as the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test, to all second-semester AFROTC sophomores. The test, developed by the Human Resources Research Center at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, measured flying and technical aptitude and "officer potential." A passing grade kept the cadet selection process moving; a failing grade eliminated the cadet from further consideration. This test proved to be an excellent indicator of leadership potential and remains a benchmark in the selection process.45
Another change helped attract cadets to flight school. Professors of air science and tactics began in the early 1950s to offer sophomore cadets introductory airplane rides. The C-45--a small, two-engine multipurpose aircraft designed to carry five to seven passengers and generally available at nearby air force bases--served as the primary orientation aircraft. An afternoon flight with fellow cadets, including a few minutes at the controls, encouraged many young men to become pilots. This voluntary activity became known eventually as the AFROTC Flying Orientation Program. In the mid-1950s, however, a shortage of C-45 aircraft and base closures made full participation at every AFROTC unit impractical. Seeking to expand flight opportunities, AFROTC leaders proposed a Flight Instruction Program (FIP). The proposal gained support in Congress; and on 1 August 1956, President Eisenhower signed Public Law 879, authorizing the Air Force to establish contracts with local flying schools for thirty-six and one-half hours of flying instruction for senior cadets, including sixteen and one-half hours of solo time. Pilots assigned to the detachments also provided thirty-five hours of ground school training in weather and navigation. The senior cadets who completed and passed the Federal Aviation Administration examination received their private pilot's licenses.46
On 1 October 1956, a few months after President Eisenhower signed Public Law 879, Brigadier General Turner C. Rogers, a 1936 graduate of West Point, succeeded General Deichelmann as commandant of AFROTC. Rogers had piloted a P-51 Mustang for fifty combat missions in Korea and later served as commander of the 18th Fighter Bomber Wing. He knew the potential value of FIP and gave it his enthusiastic support. Headquarters AFROTC awarded forty-one flight instruction contracts during 1956-57, and about 1200 cadets enrolled.47 By 1960, some 1550 cadets were enrolled in FIP in 162 universities across the country.48 The higher graduation rate for FIP students justified continued funding, and nearly all pilot-qualified cadets participated. This program, too, would become a permanent feature of AFROTC.
As the 1950s drew to a close, the Air Force increasingly emphasized career service. This change in emphasis affected all officer commissioning programs, but it struck at the land grant roots of AFROTC. The Air Force met its officer manning requirements (particularly pilots and navigators) at great expense. The rated officer simply had become too valuable a resource to be returned as a reservist to civilian life after a brief three-year tour of active duty. Beginning with the entering AFROTC junior class in 1957, Headquarters USAF extended the tours from three to five years for rated personnel and from three to four years for nonrated personnel. That particular change, General Rogers declared emphatically, "indicates that the Air Force now views ROTC as a primary source of career officers."49 The philosophy that sparked the Morrill Act of 1862 thus had turned sharply about: the career soldier had replaced the citizen-soldier, at least in the Air Force. Justin Morrill would have been hard pressed to recognize the program that he had set in motion nearly a century earlier.
WHATEVER the emphasis, career or Reserve, the officers that AFROTC prepared and brought to the Regular Air Force in the late 1950s would soon help meet America's military commitment to the Republic of Vietnam. The Vietnam War, in turn, would in the years to come markedly influence the course of AFROTC at various universities and colleges. But that is another story.
United States Air Force
Historical Research Center
Maxwell AFB, Alabama
1. William B. Parker, Justin Smith Morrill (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ticknor and Company, 1924), p. 261.
3. Andrew D. White, President of Cornell University, as quoted in Edward Danforth Eddy, Jr., Colleges for our Land and Time (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957), p. 45.
4. George P. Sanger, editor, United States Statutes at Large. Vol. XII (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1864), pp. 404-05.
5. George Lester Anderwn, editor. Land Grant Universities and Their Continuing Challenge (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1976), Table 2 and Table 3 in Appendix 1.
7. Eddy, p. 93.
8. Robert Greenhalgh Albion, Introduction to Military History (New York: Century, 1929), pp. 152-53.
9. Ibid., p. 160.
10. Ibid., p. 157; and Leonard P. Ayers, The War with Germany: A Statistical Summary (Washington: USA Statistical Branch, GPO, 1919), pp. 16-22.
11. Air Force ROTC Twenty-fifth Anniversary, Command Edition, HO Study Series No. 45 (Hq AFROTC, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, unpublished, 1971), pp. 3-4.
12. Lieutenant Colonel Dexter L. Hodge, Director of Air Force ROTC, "A Staff Briefing Designed to Acquaint Officers of Headquarters, Continental Air Command with the Air Force Reserve Officers' Training Corps," 28 October 1950, in Air Force ROTC Miscellaneous Documents, January 1950-November 1951, Source Document 24, p. 7.
13. William Addleman Ganoe, The History of the United States Army (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1943), p. 499.
14. Eddy, p. 165.
15. Marvin A. Kreidberg and Merton G. Henry, History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army (Washington: Department of the Army, 1955), p 605.
16. Eddy, p. 224.
17. Flint O. DuPre, U.S. Air Force Biographical Dictionary (New York: Franklin Watts, 1965), p. 255.
18. United States A ir Force Statistical Digest 1947, Headquarters USAF/Comptroller, Washington, D.C., August 1948, pp. 16 and 132-34.
19. Msg, General Carl A. Spaatz, Hq Army Air Forces, Washington, D.C., to Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer, Commanding General, Air Defense Command, 29 October 1946, in Richard Preston Eckels, Air ROTC, The First Year 1946-1947 (Hq AFROTC, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, unpublished), Appendix 18.
20. "Army Air Forces Plan For the Air ROTC," 22 August 1946, in Eckels, Appendix 11.
21. Gene M. Lyons and John W. Masland, Education and Military Leadership (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1959), p. 104.
22. Ltr, Colonel Charles Maylon, Hq Army Air Forces/PMP-1-N, Washington, D.C., to Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer, Commanding General, Air Defense Command, "Application for Assignment to Duty with the Reserve Officers' Training Corps," 2 July 1947, in General Order 124 and Establishing Documents 1946-1947 (Hq AFROTC, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, unpublished), Supporting Document No. 25.
23. Eckels, p. 53.
24. Ltr, Major General Thomas J. Hanley, Jr., Commanding General, Eleventh Air Force, to Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer, Commanding General, Air Defense Command, 23 April 1947, in History of Air Defense Command, July 1947-December 1948, Supporting Document No. 336.
25. Ltr, Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer, Commanding General, Air Defense Command, to Major General Thomas J. Hanley, Jr., Commanding General, Eleventh Air Force, 23 May 1947, in History of Air Defense Command, July 1947-December 1948, Supporting Document No. 336.
26. History of ConAC, July-December 1951, Vol. I, p. 45.
27. Charles A. Ravenstein, Organization of the Air Force (Hq AFSHRC/RI, Maxwell, AFB, Alabama, 1982), p. 19.
28. General Order 109, First Air Force, Mitchel AFB, New York, 13 September 1950; and History of First Air Force, July-December 1950, pp. 10-14.
29. Air Force ROTC Twenty-fifth Anniversary, p. 7.
30. Lyonsand Masland, p. 106; United States Code, 1952 edition, Sup V, Vol. 3, Titles 44-50 (Washington: USGPO, 1958), p. 3173.
31. Air Force ROTC Twenty-fifth Anniversary, pp. 4-5.
32. History of AFROTC, January-June 1953, Vol. II, Bk. 1, pp. 55-56.
33. Lyons and Masland, p. 106,
34. History of AFROTC, January-June 1953, Vol. II, Bk. 1, frontispiece and accompanying ltr. Chief of Staff, General Nathan F. Twining, to Lieutenant General Idwal H. Edwards, Commander, Air University, "Unit Device For Organizational Flag," 18 February 1953.
35. DuPre, p. 123.
36. Ltr, Major General John DeF. Baker, Deputy Commanding General, Hq Air University, to Major General Gabriel P. Disosway, Director of Training, Hq USAF, "Field Responsibility for AFROTC Program," 24 July 1951, transmitting Air University Staff Study, same subject, in History of AFROTC, 1946-1951, Supporting Document No. 105; see also History of ConAC, July-December 1951, Vol. 1, Sec. 1, pp. 45-46.
37. Ltr, Major General Willis H. Hale, Commanding General, ConAC, to Major General Gabriel P. Disosway, Director of Training, Hq USAF, 7 September 1951, in History of AFROTC, 1946-1951, unpublished, Supporting Document No. 115.
38. General Order 51, Hq Air University, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, 16 July 1952.
39. History of AFROTC, August-December 1952, Vol. I, Bk. 1, pp. 1-3.
40. History of AFROTC, January-June 1953, Vol. II, Bk. 1, p.28.
41. Ltr, Brigadier General Matthew K. Deichelmann, Commandant, AFROTC, to Professors of Air Science and Tactics, "Reprogramming of AFROTC Effective in the Fall of 1953," 3 April 1953, in History of AFROTC, July-December 1953, Vol. III, Bk. 1, Appendix 2.
42. Lty, Brigadier General Matthew K. Deichelmann, Commandant, AFROTC, to All Professors of Air Science and Tactics, "Change in Procurement Goalsof AFROTC Program," 12 August 1953, in History of AFROTC, July-December 1953, Vol. III, Bk. 1, Supporting Document No. 4.
43. Ltr, Mr. H. Lee White, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, to Honorable Errett P. Scrivner, Chairman, Subcommittee Air Force Panel, House Appropriations Committee, House of Reprentatives, 6 August 1953, in History of AFROTC, July-December 1953, Vol. III, Bk. 1, Appendix 4.
44. News Release, Brigadier General Matthew K. Deichelmann, Commandant, AFROTC, to Professors of Air Science and Tactics, "AFROTC Program Reduction," 29 July 1953, in History of Air Force ROTC, July-December 1953, Vol. III, Bk. 1. Appendix 3; History of Air University, July-December 1953, Vol. I. p. 52; History of Air University, July-December 1957, Vol. I, p. 40; and History of AFROTC, January-June 1955, Vol. V, Bk. 1, p. 6.
45. History of AFROTC, January-June 1953, Vol. II, Bk. 1, pp. 25-27.
46. US Code, Congressional and Administrative News, 84th Congress, Second Session 1956, Vol. I, p. 939; for narrative, see Vol. III, p. 3867.
47. History of AFROTC, January-June 1957, p. 31.
48. History of AFROTC, January-June 1960, p. 45.
49. Brigadier General Turner C. Rogers, Commandant, AFROTC, "Introduction" to History of AFROTC, July-December 1957, p. 2; see also pp. 3-5.
We are indebted for the photographs of Air ROTC in the 1920s to Major General Marvin C. Demler, USAF (ret), and the estate of Robert G. Carr. General Demler completed Air ROTC at New York University and served on active duty until 1971. Carr completed Air ROTC at the University of California-Berkeley, and established the Robert and Nona Carr ROTC Endowment Fund at Angelo State University, San Angelo, Texas.
Colonel William C. Stancik, USAFR (B.S., Florida State University; M.B.A., Auburn University) is a computer systems consultant in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Mobilization Assistant to the Director, USAF Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Early in his career, he flew in the B-47 as a navigator with the 306th Bomb Wing. His Air Force Reserve and Guard assignments have included tours with the Alabama Air National Guard and the Air Force Academy. Colonel Stancik is a graduate of Air Command and Staff College and Air War College.
R. Cargill Hall (B.A., Whitman College; M.A., California State University, San Jose) is Chief of the Research Division at the USAF Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Previously, he served as Deputy Command Historian at Hq Military Airlift Command Historian, Hq Strategic Air Command. Hall is the author of numerous published articles on historical and legal aspects or aeronautics and astronautics, including previous contributions to the Review.
The conclusions and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author cultivated in the freedom of expression, academic environment of Air University. They do not reflect the official position of the U.S. Government, Department of Defense, the United States Air Force or the Air University.
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